Notoriety is a statistic tracked in relation to Crime & Punishment and introduced in Chapter One (3.0) of Elite Dangerous: Beyond. It is tied directly to pilots, whereas bounties are tied only to whichever ship is used to commit a crime. As a pilot commits crimes, especially murder, their Notoriety will increase. Pilots who attain high Notoriety levels will attract the attention of powerful Advanced Tactical Response units.
Notoriety is measured from 0 to 10, with pilots gaining one point for each murder they commit. There are two ways to reduce Notoriety. First, if a criminal pilot is defeated while one of their bounties has been detected, they will respawn at a nearby Detention Centre with a clean slate after being forced to pay off all of their accumulated bounties in addition to their ship rebuy costs. Second, a criminal pilot can simply avoid system security scans and bounty hunters and wait, since Notoriety will decay on its own at the rate of one point every two hours of active game time, even while docked at a station; decay will pause if the player exits the game, and resume upon re-entering the game.
Pilots with outstanding bounties and zero Notoriety have the option of turning themselves in at a station's Security Contact, which will let them pay off the bounties and deport them to the nearest Detention Centre. Alternately, they can use an Interstellar Factors contact to pay off the bounty without having to travel to the Detention Centre.
Living with Notoriety
The Notoriety system gives the actions of the player more weight, but requires planning and an understanding of underlying mechanics.
Since bounties are in most cases tied to a faction, leaving the jurisdiction of a faction that has a bounty on the player also removes "wanted" status until the player re-enters that faction's jurisdiction. If the player has accrued Notoriety, they can simply travel to a system where they are not wanted and wait out the timer there. On the other hand, if a player has a galaxy-wide bounty as opposed to a local bounty, they can expect to have to deal with NPC Bounty Hunters (and possibly other players, too) in any inhabited system they visit.
Shooting down Skimmers, and destroying turrets and generators gives bounties, but doesn't increase Notoriety. Scanning private datapoints and trespassing restricted zones also does not lead to Notoriety gain, but killing clean ships that shoot at the player while they are wanted does. Generally speaking, Notoriety is gained by committing violent actions against other clean ships.
Carrying a Fuel Scoop is advised in case the player has to make a sudden detour to a safe system after gaining Notoriety.